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Meet the Authors

Jessica Mcbride
Jessica McBride
Operations Director
Clinical Skills Evaluation Collaboration
Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates

Jessica McBride is an Operations Director with NBME and has more than 10 years of
experience enhancing operational capabilities, building and leading top-performing teams and
resolving ongoing issues.

Ms. McBride is responsible for exam session scheduling at all sites. She oversees facility enhancement and development and maintenance issues (including AV, software and equipment), and acts as project manager for special projects.

She holds a BA in psychology, is a certified PMP and is completing CPBPM certification at Villanova University, Villanova, PA.

Carol morrison
Carol Morrison, PhD
Manager, Psychometrics
National Board of Medical Examiners

Carol Morrison is Manager of Psychometrics with NBME. Dr. Morrison supervises the scoring, equating, standard setting and other psychometric analyses for Step 1, Step 2 CK and Step 3 of the USMLE and other certification, in-training and self-assessment examinations.

Dr. Morrison is an active member of several professional organizations, including the American Educational Research Association and the National Council on Measurement in Education.

She earned a PhD in Educational Psychology (Quantitative Methods) from the University of Texas.

John J. Norcini, PhD
President and CEO
Foundation for Advancement of International Medical Education and Research

John J. Norcini has been the President and CEO of the Foundation for Advancement of International Medical Education and Research (FAIMER®) since its inception in 2000. Before that, he held a number of senior positions at the American Board of Internal Medicine.

His principal academic interest is in assessment. He has published extensively, has lectured and taught in many countries and is on the editorial boards of several peer-reviewed journals in health professions education.

He is an honorary Fellow of the Royal College of General Practitioners and the Academy of Medical Educators, and has received numerous awards, including the Karolinska Institutet Prize for Research in Medical Education, Stockholm, Sweden.

Louis N Pangaro
Louis N. Pangaro, MD, MACP
Professor and Chair
Department of Medicine
Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

Louis Pangaro is a graduate of Georgetown University Medical School with subsequent training in endocrinology and metabolism. As a recognized expert in quantitative and descriptive evaluation of students’ progress, Dr. Pangaro created “standardized examinees” to calibrate the validity of the prototype clinical skills examination of the USMLE. He also created a “synthetic” framework, or RIME scheme (reporter-interpreter-manager-educator), for defining expectations of students and residents.

He co-directs the annual Systems Approach to Assessment in Health Professions Education program at the Harvard Macy Institute, Boston, MA.

Miguel Paniagua
Miguel A. Paniagua, MD, FACP
Medical Advisor for Test Development Services
National Board of Medical Examiners

Miguel A. Paniagua currently serves as Medical Advisor for Test Development Services at NBME. His work at NBME includes the development of assessments of procedural skills, communication skills, interprofessional teamwork, and other innovations in computer-based examinations.

He has served on multiple item writing and reviewing committees at NBME over the past 10 years, and has served as a representative member of the National Board from 2011 to 2014 and on the Executive Board from 2013 to 2014.

Dr. Paniagua practices consultative hospice and palliative medicine at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania and holds adjunct appointments to the faculties of the Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, and the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

Dr. Paniagua received an undergraduate degree from Saint Louis University and an MD at the University of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago. Dr. Paniagua completed his internal medicine residency and fellowship in gerontology and geriatric medicine at the University of Washington, Seattle.

Carol Pfeiffer
Carol Pfeiffer, PhD
Professor Emeritus
University of Connecticut School of Medicine

Carol Pfeiffer is Professor Emeritus at the University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, CT, where she had a 35-year career as a medical educator. She was a founding member of the Association of Standardized Patient Educators and received awards as an outstanding educator from both that organization and the University of Connecticut. She was a member of the Prototype Committee in the initial phases of the development of NBME’s Step 2 CS.

She holds a PhD in Sociology from Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, and her focus in medical education has been on communication skills. 

Mark Raymond
Mark Raymond, PhD
Research Director and Principal Assessment Scientist
National Board of Medical Examiners

Mark Raymond is Research Director and Principal Assessment Scientist with NBME, where he conducts and coordinates research on assessment and promotes scholarly interactions with external organizations.

During the past 25 years, Dr. Raymond has consulted with licensing agencies, professional associations and universities on test development and psychometrics. His scholarly interests include job analysis and test blueprinting, generalizability theory and performance-based assessments. He serves on the editorial boards of several journals in health care and testing, and recently relinquished his role as Associate Editor of Applied Measurement in Education.

He is also the co-editor of The Handbook of Test Development, published by Routledge in 2015.

He earned a PhD in Educational Psychology from Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA.

Margaret Richmond
Margaret Richmond, MSc
Process Expert
National Board of Medical Examiners

Margaret Richmond is a Process Expert with the Strategic Planning and Institutional Effectiveness team at NBME. In this role, she manages and facilitates cross-functional project teams to implement and improve internal processes, focusing on new product development and marketing processes to enhance the effectiveness of the NBME.

She previously worked at the Center for Innovation to diversify the products and services offered by the NBME, including the Assessment of Professional Behaviors (APB) program.

Ms. Richmond earned an MSc in Information Science from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.

Jessica Salt
Jessica Salt, MD, MBE
Medical Director and Patient Note Director
Clinical Skills Evaluation Collaboration
Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates

Jessica Salt is the Medical Director and Director of the Patient Note Program for the Clinical Skills Evaluation Collaboration (CSEC), where she is responsible for recruitment, training and QA of Patient Note Raters for the USMLE Step 2 CS Exam.

Prior to joining CSEC in 2012, Dr. Salt was Associate Program Director for the Internal Medicine Residency and Director of the Internal Medicine Clerkship at Jefferson University Hospital in Philadelphia. She is a board-certified internist and currently practices as a General Hospitalist at Lankenau Medical Center in Wynnewood, PA.

Dr. Salt received an MBE in Bioethics from the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, and an MD from Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond. She completed her internal medicine residency at Brown University, Providence, RI.

Kathleen Short
Kathleen Short, MALS, MS
Program Officer
National Board of Medical Examiners

Kathleen Short is a Program Officer with NBME. With a wide range of assessment experience, she leads a team that works on the USMLE, board certifications, self-assessments and educational tools, including NBME’s Customized Assessment Service.

Her research interests include investigations into innovative assessments, including those using multimedia simulations in conjunction with multiple-choice questions.

Ms. Short earned her MALS from the University of Pennsylvania, where she focused in Ethnographic Research, and her MS in Statistics, Measurement, Assessment and Research Technology from the University of Pennsylvania’s Graduate School of Education, Philadelphia.

David B Swanson
David B. Swanson, PhD
Vice President
American Board of Medical Specialties

David B. Swanson is currently a Vice President at the ABMS, where he works with committees to manage the certification and recertification processes of ABMS Member Boards.

He also worked with the NBME, where he wrote, spoke at and hosted seminars around the world about various topics related to student assessment. He also wrote Constructing Written Test Questions For the Basic and Clinical Sciences with Dr. Susan Case.

He earned his PhD in Psychology from the University of Minnesota. In 2011, he received the Richard Farrow Gold Medal for Outstanding Contributions to Medical Education from the UK Association for the Study of Medical Education. He also holds an honorary professorial appointment at the University of Melbourne Medical School, Victoria, Australia.

Kimberly Swygert
Kimberly Swygert, PhD
Director, Research and Development in Test Development
National Board of Medical Examiners

Kimberly Swygert is Director of Research and Development in Test Development at NBME. Her work on performance assessments, examinee timing and pacing, examinee repeater behavior and score reporting has been presented at conferences and published in journals such as Academic Medicine, Advances in Health Sciences Education, the Journal of General Internal Medicine and the Journal of Educational Measurement.

In addition to her work at NBME, Dr. Swygert has taught graduate courses in biostatistics and psychometrics at Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, and the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD, where she is an external advisory board member.

She earned a PhD in Quantitative Psychology from the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

Ellen Turner
Ellen Turner, MD
Assistant Director, Patient Note Program
Clinical Skills Evaluation Collaboration
Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates

Ellen Turner serves as Assistant Director of the Patient Note Program at CSEC in
Philadelphia, PA.

Dr. Turner is a board-certified infectious diseases physician with more than 10 years of clinical and teaching experience. She is an adjunct faculty member at Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA.

After receiving her medical degree from Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ, Dr. Turner completed an internal medicine residency and infectious diseases fellowship at Temple University Hospital in Philadelphia. In addition to her experience as a clinical educator, she was also a Patient Note Rater at the ECFMG prior to joining the CSEC staff.

Howard Wainer
Howard Wainer, PhD
Distinguished Research Scientist
National Board of Medical Examiners

Howard Wainer is a Distinguished Research Scientist with NBME, where he acts as senior statistical/psychometric advisor and writes books. As a research scientist and former professor, he has published more than 400 articles and book chapters. His 20th book, Medical Illuminations: Using Evidence, Visualization & Statistical Thinking to Improve Healthcare, was published by Oxford University Press in 2014 and was a finalist for the Royal Society Winton Book Prize. His latest book, Truth or Truthiness: Distinguishing Fact from Fiction by Learning to Think like a Data Scientist, was published by Cambridge University Press in 2015.

He is a Fellow of the American Statistical Association and the American Educational Research Association and has received several awards for his work in the industry.

Dr. Wainer earned a PhD in Psychometrics from Princeton University, Princeton, NJ.


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